Ashfall Free writer Byung-seo Kim megavideo Drama





Story - Ashfall is a movie starring Byung-Hun Lee, Jung-woo Ha, and Hye-jin Jeon. Stagnant since 1903, at an elevation of 2,744 m, a volcano erupts on the mythical and majestic Baekdu Mountain
genre - Action
Countries - Indonesia
7,6 / 10 Star
Cast - Dong-seok Ma
Writed by - Hae-jun Lee
Ashfall free software. December 23, 2019 12:27AM PT Two locally-made new releases, “ Ashfall ” and “Start-up” topped the weekend box office in South Korea, beating “Frozen 2. ” (Star Wars: The Rise of Skywalker releases in Korea on Jan. 8, 2020. Opening on Thursday, CJ Entertainments “ Ashfall ” debuted on top of the box office. The volcano action drama earned 18. 2 million from 2. 46 million admissions between Thursday and Sunday, including 15. 13 million earned over the weekend. It accounted for 56% of the countrys total weekend box office. Produced by “Along with the Gods” franchise director Kim Yong-hwa, “Ashfall” is co-directed by Lee Hae-jun (“Like a Virgin”) and cinematographer-turned-director Kim Byeong-seo. Starring some of South Koreas top actors such as Lee Byung-hun, Ha Jung-woo and Don Lee, the disaster film follows the unexpected eruption of Koreas tallest volcano, Baekdusan that straddles the border between China and North Korea, and plunges the Korean peninsula into chaos. Wednesday opener, “Start-up” landed in second. The Next Entertainment World release earned 8. 3 million over five days, including 5. 45 million earned over the weekend. Based on a web cartoon of the same name, the drama revolves around two young friends who get shady jobs and experience lifes unexpected turns. Directed by Choi Jeong-yeol (“One way Trip”) “Start-up” stars Don Lee along with rising star actors Park Jung-min (“Svaha: The Sixth Finger”) and Jung Hae-in (“Tune in for Love”. “Frozen 2” slipped to third place after topping the chart for five weekends. The Walt Disney release earned 2. 59 million for a five-weekend total of 91. 4 million. Korean animation, “The Haunted House: The Sky Ghost VS Jormungandr” opened on Thursday and took fourth place. The CJ ENM release earned 2. 17 million over opening four days. Disneys “Ford v Ferrari” added 593, 000 for a total of 8. 06 million after three weekends. Incurring a steep drop of 89% in its second weekend, “Jumanji” earned 492, 000 for 7. 35 million after two weekends. “Knives Out” earned 298, 000 for a three-weekend total of 4. 07 million. After three weeks in theaters, Sonys “Bad Boys for Life” is officially the highest-grossing installment in the action-comedy series. The Will Smith and Martin Lawrence-led threequel has made 291 million globally to date, pushing it past previous franchise record holder, 2003s “Bad Boys II” and its 271 million haul. The first entry, 1995s “Bad Boys, ”. The BAFTA film awards have kicked off in London, with Graham Norton hosting this year at the Royal Albert Hall. The awards will be broadcast on the BBC in the United Kingdom and at 5 p. m. PT on BBC America. “Joker” topped the nominations with 11 nods, while “Once Upon a Time in Hollywood, ” and. “1917, ” Sam Mendes World War I survival thriller, won the Outstanding British Film Award, at the 73rd British Academy of Film and Televisions Film Awards. “1917” was the clear favourite in the category, which was the first of the evening to be announced. “Klaus”, Sergio Pabloss animated Santa story, took the animated film prize, the. Every summer, more than 1, 000 teens swarm the Texas capitol building to attend Boys State, the annual American Legion-sponsored leadership conference where these incipient politicians divide into rival parties, the Nationalists and the Federalists, and attempt to build a mock government from the ground up. In 2017, the program attracted attention for all the wrong. Box office newcomers “Rhythm Section” and “Gretel and Hansel” fumbled as “Bad Boys for Life” remained champions during a painfully slow Super Bowl weekend. Studios consider Sundays NFL championship a dead zone at movie theaters since the Super Bowl is the most-watched TV event. This year proved no exception. Overall ticket sales for the weekend. Ahead of tonights BAFTA Awards in London, Amy Gustin and Deena Wallace, co-directors of the British Independent Film Awards (BIFA) discuss how they shook up their awards voting mechanisms to become more inclusive of a wider variety of films and filmmakers.  BIFA is different from other awards bodies in its process as well as its. A wide range of Scandinavian films, including the politically-charged Danish drama “Shorta, ” the supernatural Icelandic drama “Lamb” with Noomi Rapace, and the Finnish-Iranian refugee tale “Any Day Now, were some of the highlights at this years Nordic Film Market. They were presented, along with 13 other films in post-production, as part of the Work-in-Progress section.

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Ashfall for volcanoes are fertilizer. SAAAAWEEEEEET. Air Quality Resources There are over 150 volcanoes in the United States that scientists consider to be active. Most are in Alaska with many others in Hawaii and throughout the West. Volcanic eruptions are a geologic phenomenon and not weather, but wind can transport volcanic ash from explosive eruptions thousands of miles from a volcano. National Weather Service (NWS) meteorologists monitor the status of active volcanoes, track volcanic ash in the atmosphere during eruptions, and issue advisories and warnings for airborne ash and ashfall. Major Threat to Aviation Airborne volcanic ash is a major hazard of all explosive eruptions. Aircraft encounters with ash clouds can diminish visibility, damage flight control systems, and cause jet engines to fail. Air traffic controllers and pilots must be quickly notified of volcanic eruptions to avoid volcanic ash clouds. NWS forecasters at the Washington DC and Anchorage Volcanic Ash Advisory Centers (VAACs) and those in Center Weather Service Units (CWSUs) play a key role in this effort. Impacts of Ashfall on Health, Business and Infrastructure Impacts from ashfall depend on distance from the volcano, physical properties of the ash, the amount of ashfall, and the readiness of a community to respond. Communities near volcanoes are at the greatest risk for ashfall although it can be a problem hundreds of miles from a volcano after a major eruption. Volcanic ash is abrasive, making it an irritant to eyes and lungs. Ashfall can cause minor to major damage to vehicles and buildings, contaminate water supplies, disrupt sewage and electrical systems, and damage or kill vegetation. After ashfall, affected airports must be closed until ash is removed because of its hazard to jet engines. Roads near the volcano may be impassable until cleared. NWS Weather Forecast Offices (WFOs) collaborate with VAACs and other state and federal agencies to issue ashfall advisories and warnings. Actions to Take Before, During and After an Event Before an Eruption: Ensure that safety glasses and dust masks are in the emergency supply kits at your home, at work, and in your car. You should have at least one set per person. During an Eruption: Stay calm. Wear safety glasses and and dust masks. Inhaling ash can be very harmful to your health. Stay indoors. If outside, seek shelter as quickly as possible. If you must drive, use low speeds and ensure you have plenty of windshield washer fluid. Place damp towels at door thresholds and other draft sources. After an Eruption: Stay tuned to your trusted local news source for the latest updates. Follow instructions from local officials. Continue to protect your eyes, mouth, and nose until ash has settled and been cleaned up. Volcanic Ash and Ashfall Resources Guidelines on Preparedness Before, During and After an Ashfall, USGS Airborne Volcanic Ash - A Global Threat to Aviation Volcanic Ashfall Impacts Working Group Ash from an eruption of Alaska's Pavlof Volcano. Image Courtesy of AVO/USGS.   Photo by M. L. Coombs.

แค่ดาราก็อยากดูแล้วมีทั้งอีบย็องฮ็อน, ฮาจองอู, มาดองซอก, ฮเยจินจอนร่วมด้วยนางเอกสุดน่ารักและร้องเพลงเก่งเเบ ซูจีนานๆทีจะมาเล่นภาพยนตร์ให้ดู ส่วนมากอยู่กับซีรีย์ ภาพยนตร์เกาหลีพัฒนาไปไกลมากแนวนี้เกาหลีทำออกมาบ่อยและสนุกด้วยแถมมีเศร้าอีกครับ น่าดูมากครับ. Ashfall read online. Ashfall freedom. When Firestorm and The Green Arrow team up. Ashfall themes. Stay safe! and thanks for the update. Areas reached by ash fall from Taal Volcanos phreatic eruption, News, GMA News Online Sections On TV News Ulat Filipino Nation World Regions Metro Special Reports Money Economy Personal Finance Companies Motoring Sports Volleyball Basketball Boxing Football Other sports Pinoy Abroad News Pinoy Achievers Immigration Guide SciTech Weather Science and Research Technology, Gadgets and Gaming Showbiz Pep Chika Minute Showbiz Abroad Lifestyle Family and Relationships Travel Food Art and Culture Health and Wellness Shopping and Fashion Hobbies and Activities Opinion News Hardcore Hashtag Serbisyo Publiko Walang Pasok Transportation Missing Persons Community Bulletin Board   GMA Public Affairs   Tracking   Archives 24 Oras State of the Nation Saksi Flash Report Unang Balita News To Go Balitanghali Balita Pilipinas QRT News TV Live Photo Radio Video advertisement   LOADING CONTENT.

"Ash cloud" redirects here. For general topic, see Ash. For other uses, see Ash (disambiguation. Volcanic ash deposits on a parked McDonnell-Douglas DC-10-30 during the 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo, causing the aircraft to rest on its tail. While falling ash behaves in a similar manner to snow, the sheer weight of deposits can cause serious damage to buildings and vehicles, as seen here, where the deposits were able to cause the 120 ton airliner's centre of gravity to shift. Volcanic ash consists of fragments of rock, minerals, and volcanic glass, created during volcanic eruptions and measuring less than 2 mm (0. 079 inches) in diameter. [1] The term volcanic ash is also often loosely used to refer to all explosive eruption products (correctly referred to as tephra) including particles larger than 2 mm. Volcanic ash is formed during explosive volcanic eruptions when dissolved gases in magma expand and escape violently into the atmosphere. The force of the gasses shatters the magma and propels it into the atmosphere where it solidifies into fragments of volcanic rock and glass. Ash is also produced when magma comes into contact with water during phreatomagmatic eruptions, causing the water to explosively flash to steam leading to shattering of magma. Once in the air, ash is transported by wind up to thousands of kilometres away. Due to its wide dispersal, ash can have a number of impacts on society, including human and animal health, disruption to aviation, disruption to critical infrastructure (e. g., electric power supply systems, telecommunications, water and waste-water networks, transportation) primary industries (e. g., agriculture) buildings and structures. Formation [ edit] Volcanic ash is formed during explosive volcanic eruptions, phreatomagmatic eruptions and during transport in pyroclastic density currents. Explosive eruptions occur when magma decompresses as it rises, allowing dissolved volatiles (dominantly water and carbon dioxide) to exsolve into gas bubbles. [2] As more bubbles nucleate a foam is produced, which decreases the density of the magma, accelerating it up the conduit. Fragmentation occurs when bubbles occupy ~70–80 vol% of the erupting mixture. [3] When fragmentation occurs, violently expanding bubbles tear the magma apart into fragments which are ejected into the atmosphere where they solidify into ash particles. Fragmentation is a very efficient process of ash formation and is capable of generating very fine ash even without the addition of water. [4] Volcanic ash is also produced during phreatomagmatic eruptions. During these eruptions fragmentation occurs when magma comes into contact with bodies of water (such as the sea, lakes and marshes) groundwater, snow or ice. As the magma, which is significantly hotter than the boiling point of water, comes into contact with water an insulating vapor film forms ( Leidenfrost effect. 5] Eventually this vapor film will collapse leading to direct coupling of the cold water and hot magma. This increases the heat transfer which leads to the rapid expansion of water and fragmentation of the magma into small particles which are subsequently ejected from the volcanic vent. Fragmentation causes an increase in contact area between magma and water creating a feedback mechanism, 5] leading to further fragmentation and production of fine ash particles. Pyroclastic density currents can also produce ash particles. These are typically produced by lava dome collapse or collapse of the eruption column. [6] Within pyroclastic density currents particle abrasion occurs as particles interact with each other resulting in a reduction in grain size and production of fine grained ash particles. In addition, ash can be produced during secondary fragmentation of pumice fragments, due to the conservation of heat within the flow. [7] These processes produce large quantities of very fine grained ash which is removed from pyroclastic density currents in co-ignimbrite ash plumes. Physical and chemical characteristics of volcanic ash are primarily controlled by the style of volcanic eruption. [8] Volcanoes display a range of eruption styles which are controlled by magma chemistry, crystal content, temperature and dissolved gases of the erupting magma and can be classified using the volcanic explosivity index (VEI. Effusive eruptions (VEI 1) of basaltic composition produce <10 5 m 3 of ejecta, whereas extremely explosive eruptions (VEI 5+ of rhyolitic and dacitic composition can inject large quantities (>10 9 m 3) of ejecta into the atmosphere. Another parameter controlling the amount of ash produced is the duration of the eruption: the longer the eruption is sustained, the more ash will be produced. For example, the second phase of the 2010 eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull was classified as VEI 4 despite a modest 8 km high eruption column, but the eruption continued for a month, which allowed a large volume of ash to be ejected into the atmosphere. Properties [ edit] Chemical [ edit] The types of minerals present in volcanic ash are dependent on the chemistry of the magma from which it erupted. Considering that the most abundant elements found in silicate magma are silicon and oxygen, the various types of magma (and therefore ash) produced during volcanic eruptions are most commonly explained in terms of their silica content. Low energy eruptions of basalt produce a characteristically dark coloured ash containing ~45–55% silica that is generally rich in iron (Fe) and magnesium (Mg. The most explosive rhyolite eruptions produce a felsic ash that is high in silica (>69% while other types of ash with an intermediate composition (e. g., andesite or dacite) have a silica content between 55–69. The principal gases released during volcanic activity are water, carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen, hydrogen sulfide, carbon monoxide and hydrogen chloride. [9] These sulfur and halogen gases and metals are removed from the atmosphere by processes of chemical reaction, dry and wet deposition, and by adsorption onto the surface of volcanic ash. It has long been recognised that a range of sulfate and halide (primarily chloride and fluoride) compounds are readily mobilised from fresh volcanic ash. 10] 11] 12] It is considered most likely that these salts are formed as a consequence of rapid acid dissolution of ash particles within eruption plumes, which is thought to supply the cations involved in the deposition of sulfate and halide salts. While some 55 ionic species have been reported in fresh ash leachates, 9] the most abundant species usually found are the cations Na. K. Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ and the anions Cl −, F − and SO 4 2−. [9] 12] Molar ratios between ions present in leachates suggest that in many cases these elements are present as simple salts such as NaCl and CaSO 4. [9] 13] 14] 15] In a sequential leaching experiment on ash from the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens, chloride salts were found to be the most readily soluble, followed by sulfate salts [13] Fluoride compounds are in general only sparingly soluble (e. g., CaF 2, MgF 2) with the exception of fluoride salts of alkali metals and compounds such as calcium hexafluorosilicate (CaSiF 6. 16] The pH of fresh ash leachates is highly variable, depending on the presence of an acidic gas condensate (primarily as a consequence of the gases SO 2, HCl and HF in the eruption plume) on the ash surface. The crystalline-solid structure of the salts act more as an insulator than a conductor. [17] 18] 19] 20] However, once the salts are dissolved into a solution by a source of moisture (e. g., fog, mist, light rain, etc. the ash may become corrosive and electrically conductive. A recent study has shown that the electrical conductivity of volcanic ash increases with (1) increasing moisture content, 2) increasing soluble salt content, and (3) increasing compaction (bulk density. 20] The ability of volcanic ash to conduct electric current has significant implications for electric power supply systems. Physical [ edit] Components [ edit] Volcanic ash particles erupted during magmatic eruptions are made up of various fractions of vitric (glassy, non-crystalline) crystalline or lithic (non-magmatic) particles. Ash produced during low viscosity magmatic eruptions (e. g., Hawaiian and Strombolian basaltic eruptions) produce a range of different pyroclasts dependent on the eruptive process. For example, ash collected from Hawaiian lava fountains consists of sideromelane (light brown basaltic glass) pyroclasts which contain microlites (small quench crystals, not to be confused with the rare mineral microlite) and phenocrysts. Slightly more viscous eruptions of basalt (e. g., Strombolian) form a variety of pyroclasts from irregular sideromelane droplets to blocky tachylite (black to dark brown microcrystalline pyroclasts. In contrast, most high-silica ash (e. g. rhyolite) consists of pulverised products of pumice (vitric shards) individual phenocrysts (crystal fraction) and some lithic fragments ( xenoliths. 21] Ash generated during phreatic eruptions primarily consists of hydrothermally altered lithic and mineral fragments, commonly in a clay matrix. Particle surfaces are often coated with aggregates of zeolite crystals or clay and only relict textures remain to identify pyroclast types. [21] Morphology [ edit] Light microscope image of ash from the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens, Washington. The morphology (shape) of volcanic ash is controlled by a plethora of different eruption and kinematic processes. [21] 22] Eruptions of low-viscosity magmas (e. g., basalt) typically form droplet shaped particles. This droplet shape is, in part, controlled by surface tension, acceleration of the droplets after they leave the vent, and air friction. Shapes range from perfect spheres to a variety of twisted, elongate droplets with smooth, fluidal surfaces. [22] The morphology of ash from eruptions of high-viscosity magmas (e. g., rhyolite, dacite, and some andesites) is mostly dependent on the shape of vesicles in the rising magma before disintegration. Vesicles are formed by the expansion of magmatic gas before the magma has solidified. Ash particles can have varying degrees of vesicularity and vesicular particles can have extremely high surface area to volume ratios. [21] Concavities, troughs, and tubes observed on grain surfaces are the result of broken vesicle walls. [22] Vitric ash particles from high-viscosity magma eruptions are typically angular, vesicular pumiceous fragments or thin vesicle-wall fragments while lithic fragments in volcanic ash are typically equant, or angular to subrounded. Lithic morphology in ash is generally controlled by the mechanical properties of the wall rock broken up by spalling or explosive expansion of gases in the magma as it reaches the surface. The morphology of ash particles from phreatomagmatic eruptions is controlled by stresses within the chilled magma which result in fragmentation of the glass to form small blocky or pyramidal glass ash particles. [21] Vesicle shape and density play only a minor role in the determination of grain shape in phreatomagmatic eruptions. In this sort of eruption, the rising magma is quickly cooled on contact with ground or surface water. Stresses within the "quenched" magma cause fragmentation into five dominant pyroclast shape-types: 1) blocky and equant; 2) vesicular and irregular with smooth surfaces; 3) moss-like and convoluted; 4) spherical or drop-like; and (5) plate-like. Density [ edit] The density of individual particles varies with different eruptions. The density of volcanic ash varies between 700–1200 kg/m 3 for pumice, 2350–2450 kg/m 3 for glass shards, 2700–3300 kg/m 3 for crystals, and 2600–3200 kg/m 3 for lithic particles. [23] Since coarser and denser particles are deposited close to source, fine glass and pumice shards are relatively enriched in ash fall deposits at distal locations. [24] The high density and hardness ( 5 on the Mohs Hardness Scale) together with a high degree of angularity, make some types of volcanic ash (particularly those with a high silica content) very abrasive. Grain size [ edit] Volcanic ash grain size distributions. Volcanic ash consists of particles (pyroclasts) with diameters <2 mm (particles >2 mm are classified as lapilli. 1] and can be as fine as 1 μm. [8] The overall grain size distribution of ash can vary greatly with different magma compositions. Few attempts have been made to correlate the grain size characteristics of a deposit with those of the event which produced it, though some predictions can be made. Rhyolitic magmas generally produce finer grained material compared to basaltic magmas, due to the higher viscosity and therefore explosivity. The proportions of fine ash are higher for silicic explosive eruptions, probably because vesicle size in the pre-eruptive magma is smaller than those in mafic magmas. [1] There is good evidence that pyroclastic flows produce high proportions of fine ash by communition and it is likely that this process also occurs inside volcanic conduits and would be most efficient when the magma fragmentation surface is well below the summit crater. [1] Dispersal [ edit] Ash plume rising from Mount Redoubt after an eruption on April 21, 1990. Ash particles are incorporated into eruption columns as they are ejected from the vent at high velocity. The initial momentum from the eruption propels the column upwards. As air is drawn into the column, the bulk density decreases and it starts to rise buoyantly into the atmosphere. [6] At a point where the bulk density of the column is the same as the surrounding atmosphere, the column will cease rising and start moving laterally. Lateral dispersion is controlled by prevailing winds and the ash may be deposited hundreds to thousands of kilometres from the volcano, depending on eruption column height, particle size of the ash and climatic conditions (especially wind direction and strength and humidity. 25] Ash fallout occurs immediately after the eruption and is controlled by particle density. Initially, coarse particles fall out close to source. This is followed by fallout of accretionary lapilli, which is the result of particle agglomeration within the column. [26] Ash fallout is less concentrated during the final stages as the column moves downwind. This results in an ash fall deposit which generally decreases in thickness and grain size exponentially with increasing distance from the volcano. [27] Fine ash particles may remain in the atmosphere for days to weeks and be dispersed by high-altitude winds. These particles can impact on the aviation industry (refer to impacts section) and, combined with gas particles, can affect global climate. Volcanic ash plumes can form above pyroclastic density currents, these are called co-ignimbrite plumes. As pyroclastic density currents travel away from the volcano, smaller particles are removed from the flow by elutriation and form a less dense zone overlying the main flow. This zone then entrains the surrounding air and a buoyant co-ignimbrite plume is formed. These plumes tend to have higher concentrations of fine ash particles compared to magmatic eruption plumes due to the abrasion within the pyroclastic density current. [1] Impacts [ edit] Introduction [ edit] Population growth has caused the progressive encroachment of urban development into higher risk areas, closer to volcanic centres, increasing the human exposure to volcanic ash fall events. Infrastructure is critical to supporting modern societies, particularly in urban areas, where high population densities create high demand for services. These infrastructure networks and systems support urban living, and provide lifeline services upon which we depend for our health, education, transport and social networking. Infrastructure networks and services support a variety of facilities across a broad range of sectors. [28] Volcanic ash fall events can disrupt and or damage the infrastructure upon which society depends. Several recent eruptions have illustrated the vulnerability of urban areas that received only a few millimetres or centimetres of volcanic ash. [29] 30] 31] 32] 33] 34] 35] This has been sufficient to cause disruption of transportation, electricity, water, sewage and storm water systems. Costs have been incurred from business disruption, replacement of damaged parts and insured losses. Ash fall impacts on critical infrastructure can also cause multiple knock-on effects, which may disrupt many different sectors and services. Volcanic ash fall is physically, socially, and economically disruptive. Volcanic ash can affect both proximal areas and areas many hundreds of kilometres from the source, and causes disruptions and losses in a wide variety of different infrastructure sectors. Impacts are dependent on: ash fall thickness; the duration of the ash fall; the grain size and chemistry of the ash; whether the ash is wet or dry; and any preparedness, management and prevention (mitigation) measures employed to reduce effects from the ash fall. Different sectors of infrastructure and society are affected in different ways and are vulnerable to a range of impacts or consequences. These are discussed in the following sections. Infrastructure sectors [ edit] Electricity [ edit] Electrical insulator flashover caused by volcanic ash contamination. Volcanic ash can cause disruption to electric power supply systems at all levels of power generation, transformation, transmission and distribution. There are four main impacts arising from ash-contamination of apparatus used in the power delivery process: 36] Wet deposits of ash on high voltage insulators can initiate a leakage current (small amount of current flow across the insulator surface) which, if sufficient current is achieved, can cause ‘flashover (the unintended electrical discharge around or over the surface of an insulating material. If the resulting short-circuit current is high enough to trip the circuit breaker then disruption of service will occur. Ash-induced flashover across transformer insulation (bushings) can burn, etch or crack the insulation irreparably and will likely result in the disruption of power supply. Volcanic ash can erode, pit and scour metallic apparatus, particularly moving parts such as water and wind turbines and cooling fans on transformers or thermal power plants. The high bulk density of some ash deposits can cause line breakage and damage to steel towers and wooden poles due to ash loading. This is most hazardous when the ash and/or the lines and structures are wet (e. g., by rainfall) and there has been ≥10 mm of ash fall. Fine-grained ash (e. g. 0. 5 mm diameter) adheres to lines and structures most readily. Volcanic ash may also load overhanging vegetation, causing it to fall onto lines. Snow and ice accumulation on lines and overhanging vegetation further increases the risk of breakage and or collapse of lines and other hardware. Controlled outages of vulnerable connection points (e. g., substations) or circuits until ash fall has subsided or for de-energised cleaning of equipment. Drinking water supplies [ edit] Following an eruption, it is very common for the public to hold fears about chemical contamination of water supplies. However, in general, the physical impacts of an ashfall will tend to overwhelm problems caused by the release of chemical contaminants from fresh volcanic ash. Impacts vary according to the type of treatment system. Large water treatment plants [ edit] Water turbine from the Agoyan Hydroelectric plant eroded by volcanic ash laden water. Groundwater-fed systems are resilient to impacts from ashfall, although airborne ash can interfere with the operation of well-head pumps. Electricity outages caused by ashfall can also disrupt electrically powered pumps if there is no backup generation. For surface water sources such as lakes and reservoirs, the volume available for dilution of ionic species leached from ash is generally large. The most abundant components of ash leachates (Ca, Na, Mg, K, Cl, F and SO 4) occur naturally at significant concentrations in most surface waters and therefore are not affected greatly by inputs from volcanic ashfall, and are also of low concern in drinking water, with the possible exception of fluorine. The elements iron, manganese and aluminium are commonly enriched over background levels by volcanic ashfall. These elements may impart a metallic taste to water, and may produce red, brown or black staining of whiteware, but are not considered a health risk. Volcanic ashfalls are not known to have caused problems in water supplies for toxic trace elements such as mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) which occur at very low levels in ash leachates. A further point to note is that drinking-water treatment commonly involves the addition of treatment chemicals such as aluminium sulfate or ferric chloride as flocculants, lime for pH adjustment, chlorine for disinfection and fluoride compounds for dental health. The physical impacts of ashfall can affect the operation of water treatment plants. Ash can block intake structures, cause severe abrasion damage to pump impellers and overload pump motors. Many water treatment plants have an initial coagulation/flocculation step that is automatically adjusted to turbidity (the level of suspended solids, measured in nephelometric turbidity units) in the incoming water. In most cases, changes in turbidity caused by suspended ash particles will be within the normal operating range of the plant and can be managed satisfactorily by adjusting the addition of coagulant. Ashfalls will be more likely to cause problems for plants that are not designed for high levels of turbidity and which may omit coagulation/flocculation treatment. Ash can enter filtration systems such as open sand filters both by direct fallout and via intake waters. In most cases, increased maintenance will be required to manage the effects of an ashfall, but there will not be service interruptions. The final step of drinking water treatment is disinfection to ensure that final drinking water is free from infectious microorganisms. As suspended particles (turbidity) can provide a growth substrate for microorganisms and can protect them from disinfection treatment, it is extremely important that the water treatment process achieves a good level of removal of suspended particles. Small treatment systems [ edit] Many small communities obtain their drinking water from diverse sources (lakes, streams, springs and groundwater wells. Levels of treatment vary widely, from rudimentary systems with coarse screening or settling followed by disinfection (usually chlorination) to more sophisticated systems using a filtration step. Unless a high quality source is used, such as secure groundwater, disinfection alone is unlikely to guarantee that drinking water is safe from protozoa such as Giardia and Cryptosporidium, which are relatively resistant to standard disinfectants and which require additional removal steps such as filtration. Volcanic ashfall is likely to have major effects on these systems. Ash will clog intake structures, cause abrasion damage to pumps and block pipes, settling ponds and open filters. High levels of turbidity are very likely to interfere with disinfection treatment and doses may have to be adjusted to compensate. It is essential to monitor chlorine residuals in the distribution system. Rainwater-fed supplies [ edit] Many households, and some small communities, rely on rainwater for their drinking water supplies. Roof-fed systems are highly vulnerable to contamination by ashfall, as they have a large surface area relative to the storage tank volume. In these cases, leaching of chemical contaminants from the ashfall can become a health risk and drinking of water is not recommended. Prior to an ashfall, downpipes should be disconnected so that water in the tank is protected. A further problem is that the surface coating of fresh volcanic ash can be acidic. Unlike most surface waters, rainwater generally has a very low alkalinity (acid-neutralising capacity) and thus ashfall may acidify tank waters. This may lead to problems with plumbosolvency, whereby the water is more aggressive towards materials that it comes into contact with. This can be a particular problem if there are lead-head nails or lead flashing used on the roof, and for copper pipes and other metallic plumbing fittings. Water demand [ edit] During ashfall events, large demands are commonly placed on water resources for cleanup and shortages can result. Shortages compromise key services such as firefighting and can lead to a lack of water for hygiene, sanitation and drinking. Municipal authorities need to monitor and manage this water demand carefully, and may need to advise the public to utilise cleanup methods that do not use water (e. g., cleaning with brooms rather than hoses. Wastewater treatment [ edit] Wastewater networks may sustain damage similar to water supply networks. It is very difficult to exclude ash from the sewerage system. Systems with combined storm water/sewer lines are most at risk. Ash will enter sewer lines where there is inflow/infiltration by stormwater through illegal connections (e. g., from roof downpipes) cross connections, around manhole covers or through holes and cracks in sewer pipes. Ash-laden sewage entering a treatment plant is likely to cause failure of mechanical prescreening equipment such as step screens or rotating screens. Ash that penetrates further into the system will settle and reduce the capacity of biological reactors as well as increasing the volume of sludge and changing its composition. Aircraft [ edit] The principal damage sustained by aircraft flying into a volcanic ash cloud is abrasion to forward-facing surfaces, such as the windshield and leading edges of the wings, and accumulation of ash into surface openings, including engines. Abrasion of windshields and landing lights will reduce visibility forcing pilots to rely on their instruments. However, some instruments may provide incorrect readings as sensors (e. g., pitot tubes) can become blocked with ash. Ingestion of ash into engines causes abrasion damage to compressor fan blades. The ash erodes sharp blades in the compressor, reducing its efficiency. The ash melts in the combustion chamber to form molten glass. The ash then solidifies on turbine blades, blocking air flow and causing the engine to stall. The composition of most ash is such that its melting temperature is within the operating temperature (>1000 C) of modern large jet engines. [37] The degree of impact depends upon the concentration of ash in the plume, the length of time the aircraft spends within the plume and the actions taken by the pilots. Critically, melting of ash, particularly volcanic glass, can result in accumulation of resolidified ash on turbine nozzle guide vanes, resulting in compressor stall and complete loss of engine thrust. [38] The standard procedure of the engine control system when it detects a possible stall is to increase power which would exacerbate the problem. It is recommended that pilots reduce engine power and quickly exit the cloud by performing a descending 180 turn. [38] Volcanic gases, which are present within ash clouds, can also cause damage to engines and acrylic windshields, although this damage may not surface for many years. Occurrence [ edit] There are many instances of damage to jet aircraft as a result of an ash encounter. On 24 June 1982, a British Airways Boeing 747-236B ( Flight 9) flew through the ash cloud from the eruption of Mount Galunggung, Indonesia resulting in the failure of all four engines. The plane descended 24, 000 feet (7, 300 m) in 16 minutes before the engines restarted, allowing the aircraft to make an emergency landing. On 15 December 1989, a KLM Boeing 747-400 ( Flight 867) also lost power to all four engines after flying into an ash cloud from Mount Redoubt, Alaska. After dropping 14, 700 feet (4, 500 m) in four minutes, the engines were started just 1–2 minutes before impact. Total damage was US80 million and it took 3 months' work to repair the plane. [37] In the 1990s, a further US100 million of damage was sustained by commercial aircraft (some in the air, others on the ground) as a consequence of the 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines. [37] In April 2010, airspace all over Europe was affected, with many flights cancelled -which was unprecedented-due to the presence of volcanic ash in the upper atmosphere from the eruption of the Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull. [39] On 15 April 2010, the Finnish Air Force halted training flights when damage was found from volcanic dust ingestion by the engines of one of its Boeing F-18 Hornet fighters. [40] On 22 April 2010, UK RAF Typhoon training flights were also temporarily suspended after deposits of volcanic ash were found in a jet's engines. [41] In June 2011, there were similar closures of airspace in Chile, Argentina, Brazil, Australia and New Zealand, following the eruption of Puyehue-Cordón Caulle, Chile. Detection [ edit] Coverage of the nine VAAC around the world The AVOID instrument mounted on the fuselage of an AIRBUS A340 test aircraft. Volcanic ash clouds are very difficult to detect from aircraft as no onboard cockpit instruments exist to detect them. However, a new system called Airborne Volcanic Object Infrared Detector (AVOID) has recently been developed by Dr Fred Prata [42] while working at CSIRO Australia [43] and the Norwegian Institute for Air Research, which will allow pilots to detect ash plumes up to 60 km (37 mi) ahead and fly safely around them. [44] The system uses two fast-sampling infrared cameras, mounted on a forward-facing surface, that are tuned to detect volcanic ash. This system can detect ash concentrations of <1 mg/m 3 to > 50 mg/m 3, giving pilots approximately 7–10 minutes warning. [44] The camera was tested [45] 46] by the easyJet airline company, 47] AIRBUS and Nicarnica Aviation (co-founded by Dr Fred Prata. The results showed the system could work to distances of ~60 km and up to 10, 000 ft [48] but not any higher without some significant modifications. In addition, ground and satellite based imagery, radar, and lidar can be used to detect ash clouds. This information is passed between meteorological agencies, volcanic observatories and airline companies through Volcanic Ash Advisory Centers (VAAC. There is one VAAC for each of the nine regions of the world. VAACs can issue advisories describing the current and future extent of the ash cloud. Airport systems [ edit] Volcanic ash not only affects in-flight operations but can affect ground-based airport operations as well. Small accumulations of ash can reduce visibility, create slippery runways and taxiways, infiltrate communication and electrical systems, interrupt ground services, damage buildings and parked aircraft. [49] Ash accumulation of more than a few millimeters requires removal before airports can resume full operations. Ash does not disappear (unlike snowfalls) and must be disposed of in a manner that prevents it from being remobilised by wind and aircraft. Land transport [ edit] Ash may disrupt transportation systems over large areas for hours to days, including roads and vehicles, railways and ports and shipping. Falling ash will reduce the visibility which can make driving difficult and dangerous. [23] In addition, fast travelling cars will stir up ash, creating billowing clouds which perpetuate ongoing visibility hazards. Ash accumulations will decrease traction, especially when wet, and cover road markings. [23] Fine-grained ash can infiltrate openings in cars and abrade most surfaces, especially between moving parts. Air and oil filters will become blocked requiring frequent replacement. Rail transport is less vulnerable, with disruptions mainly caused by reduction in visibility. [23] Marine transport can also be impacted by volcanic ash. Ash fall will block air and oil filters and abrade any moving parts if ingested into engines. Navigation will be impacted by a reduction in visibility during ash fall. Vesiculated ash ( pumice and scoria) will float on the water surface in ‘pumice rafts which can clog water intakes quickly, leading to over heating of machinery. [23] Communications [ edit] Telecommunication and broadcast networks can be affected by volcanic ash in the following ways: attenuation and reduction of signal strength; damage to equipment; and overloading of network through user demand. Signal attenuation due to volcanic ash is not well documented; however, there have been reports of disrupted communications following the 1969 Surtsey eruption and 1991 Mount Pinatubo eruption. Research by the New Zealand -based Auckland Engineering Lifelines Group determined theoretically that impacts on telecommunications signals from ash would be limited to low frequency services such as satellite communication. [34] Signal interference may also be caused by lightning, as this is frequently generated within volcanic eruption plumes. [50] Telecommunication equipment may become damaged due to direct ash fall. Most modern equipment requires constant cooling from air conditioning units. These are susceptible to blockage by ash which reduces their cooling efficiency. [51] Heavy ash falls may cause telecommunication lines, masts, cables, aerials, antennae dishes and towers to collapse due to ash loading. Moist ash may also cause accelerated corrosion of metal components. [34] Reports from recent eruptions suggest that the largest disruption to communication networks is overloading due to high user demand. [23] This is common of many natural disasters. Computers [ edit] Computers may be impacted by volcanic ash, with their functionality and usability decreasing during ashfall, but it is unlikely they will completely fail. [52] The most vulnerable components are the mechanical components, such as cooling fans, cd drives, keyboard, mice and touch pads. These components can become jammed with fine grained ash causing them to cease working; however, most can be restored to working order by cleaning with compressed air. Moist ash may cause electrical short circuits within desktop computers; however, will not affect laptop computers. [52] Buildings and structures [ edit] Damage to buildings and structures can range from complete or partial roof collapse to less catastrophic damage of exterior and internal materials. Impacts depend on the thickness of ash, whether it is wet or dry, the roof and building design and how much ash gets inside a building. The specific weight of ash can vary significantly and rain can increase this by 50–100. 8] Problems associated with ash loading are similar to that of snow; however, ash is more severe as 1) the load from ash is generally much greater, 2) ash does not melt and 3) ash can clog and damage gutters, especially after rain fall. Impacts for ash loading depend on building design and construction, including roof slope, construction materials, roof span and support system, and age and maintenance of the building. [8] Generally flat roofs are more susceptible to damage and collapse than steeply pitched roofs. Roofs made of smooth materials (sheet metal or glass) are more likely to shed ash than roofs made with rough materials (thatch, asphalt or wood shingles. Roof collapse can lead to widespread injuries and deaths and property damage. For example, the collapse of roofs from ash during the 15 June 1991 Mount Pinatubo eruption killed about 300 people. [53] Human and animal health [ edit] Ash particles of less than 10 µm diameter suspended in the air are known to be inhalable, and people exposed to ash falls have experienced respiratory discomfort, breathing difficulty, eye and skin irritation, and nose and throat symptoms. [54] Most of these effects are short-term and are not considered to pose a significant health risk to those without pre-existing respiratory conditions. [55] The health effects of volcanic ash depend on the grain size, mineralogical composition and chemical coatings on the surface of the ash particles. [55] Additional factors related to potential respiratory symptoms are the frequency and duration of exposure, the concentration of ash in the air and the respirable ash fraction; the proportion of ash with less than 10 µm diameter, known as PM 10. The social context may also be important. Chronic health effects from volcanic ash fall are possible, as exposure to free crystalline silica is known to cause silicosis. Minerals associated with this include quartz, cristobalite and tridymite, which may all be present in volcanic ash. These minerals are described as ‘free silica as the SiO 2 is not attached to another element to create a new mineral. However, magmas containing less than 58% SiO 2 are thought to be unlikely to contain crystalline silica. [55] The exposure levels to free crystalline silica in the ash are commonly used to characterise the risk of silicosis in occupational studies (for people who work in mining, construction and other industries. because it is classified as a human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Guideline values have been created for exposure, but with unclear rationale; UK guidelines for particulates in air (PM10) are 50 µg/m 3 and USA guidelines for exposure to crystalline silica are 50 µg/m 3. [55] It is thought that the guidelines on exposure levels could be exceeded for short periods of time without significant health effects on the general population. [54] There have been no documented cases of silicosis developed from exposure to volcanic ash. However, long-term studies necessary to evaluate these effects are lacking. [55] Ingesting ash [ edit] Ingesting ash may be harmful to livestock, causing abrasion of the teeth, and in cases of high fluorine content, fluorine poisoning (toxic at levels of >100 µg/g) for grazing animals. [56] It is known from the 1783 eruption of Laki in Iceland that fluorine poisoning occurred in humans and livestock as a result of the chemistry of the ash and gas, which contained high levels of Hydrogen Fluoride. Following the 1995/96 Mount Ruapehu eruptions in New Zealand, two thousand ewes and lambs died after being affected by fluorosis while grazing on land with only 1–3 mm of ash fall. [56] Symptoms of flourorsis among cattle exposed to ash Brown-yellow to green-black mottles in the teeth, and hypersensibility to pressure in the legs and back. [57] Ash ingestion may also cause gastrointestinal blockages. [34] Sheep that ingested ash from the 1991 Mount Hudson volcanic eruption in Chile, suffered from diarrhoea and weakness. Other effects on livestock [ edit] Ash accumulating in the back wool of sheep may add significant weight, leading to fatigue and sheep that can not stand up. Rainfall may result in a significant burden as it adds weight to ash. [58] Pieces of wool may fall away and any remaining wool on sheep may be worthless as poor nutrition associated to volcanic eruptions impacts on que quality of the fibre. [58] As the usual pastures and plants become covered in volcanic ash during eruption some livestock may resort to eat whatever is available including toxic plants. [59] There are reports of goats and sheep in Chile and Argentina having natural aborts in connection to volcanic eruptions. [60] Environment and agriculture [ edit] Volcanic ash can have a detrimental impact on the environment which can be difficult to predict due to the large variety of environmental conditions that exist within the ash fall zone. Natural waterways can be impacted in the same way as urban water supply networks. Ash will increase water turbidity which can reduce the amount of light reaching lower depths, which can inhibit growth of submerged aquatic plants and consequently affect species which are dependent on them such as fish and shellfish. High turbidity can also affect the ability of fish gills to absorb dissolved oxygen. Acidification will also occur, which will reduce the pH of the water and impact the fauna and flora living in the environment. Fluoride contamination will occur if the ash contains high concentrations of fluoride. Ash accumulation will also affect pasture, plants and trees which are part of the horticulture and agriculture industries. Thin ash falls (<20 mm) may put livestock off eating, and can inhibit transpiration and photosynthesis and alter growth. There may be an increase in pasture production due to a mulching effect and slight fertilizing effect, such as occurred following the 1980 Mount St. Helens and 1995/96 Mt Ruapehu eruptions. [61] 62] Heavier falls will completely bury pastures and soil leading to death of pasture and sterilization of the soil due to oxygen deprivation. Plant survival is dependent on ash thickness, ash chemistry, compaction of ash, amount of rainfall, duration of burial and the length of plant stalks at the time of ash fall. [8] The acidic nature of ash will lead to elevated soil sulfur levels and lowered soil pH, which can reduce the availability of essential minerals and alter the soil's characteristics so that crops and plants will not survive. Ash will also impact upon arable crops, such as fruit, vegetables and grain. Ash can burn plant and crop tissue reducing quality, contaminate crops during harvest and damage plants from ash loading. Young forests (trees <2 years old) are most at risk from ash falls and are likely to be destroyed by ash deposits >100 mm. [63] Ash fall is unlikely to kill mature trees, but ash loading may break large branches during heavy ash falls (>500 mm. Defoliation of trees may also occur, especially if there is a coarse ash component within the ash fall. [8] Land rehabilitation after ash fall may be possible depending on the ash deposit thickness. Rehabilitation treatment may include: direct seeding of deposit; mixing of deposit with buried soil; scraping of ash deposit from land surface; and application of new topsoil over the ash deposit. [34] Interdependence [ edit] Interdependency of volcanic ashfall impacts from the Eyjafjallajökull 2010 eruptions. Critical infrastructure and infrastructure services are vital to the functionality of modern society, to provide: medical care, policing, emergency services, and lifelines such as water, wastewater, and power and transportation links. Often critical facilities themselves are dependent on such lifelines for operability, which makes them vulnerable to both direct impacts from a hazard event and indirect effects from lifeline disruption. [64] The impacts on lifelines may also be inter-dependent. The vulnerability of each lifeline may depend on: the type of hazard, the spatial density of its critical linkages, the dependency on critical linkages, susceptibility to damage and speed of service restoration, state of repair or age, and institutional characteristics or ownership. [28] The 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajokull in Iceland highlighted the impacts of volcanic ash fall in modern society and our dependence on the functionality of infrastructure services. During this event, the airline industry suffered business interruption losses of 1. 5–2. 5 billion from the closure of European airspace for six days in April 2010 and subsequent closures into May 2010. [65] Ash fall from this event is also known to have caused local crop losses in agricultural industries, losses in the tourism industry, destruction of roads and bridges in Iceland (in combination with glacial melt water) and costs associated with emergency response and clean-up. However, across Europe there were further losses associated with travel disruption, the insurance industry, the postal service, and imports and exports across Europe and worldwide. These consequences demonstrate the interdependency and diversity of impacts from a single event. [35] Preparedness, mitigation and management [ edit] Preparedness for ashfalls should involve sealing buildings, protecting infrastructure and homes, and storing sufficient supplies of food and water to last until the ash fall is over and clean-up can begin. Dust masks can be worn to reduce inhalation of ash and mitigate against any respiratory health affects. [54] Goggles can be worn to protect against eye irritation. The International Volcanic Ashfall Impacts Working Group of IAVCEI maintains a regularly updated database of impacts and mitigations strategies. At home, staying informed about volcanic activity, and having contingency plans in place for alternative shelter locations, constitutes good preparedness for an ash fall event. This can prevent some impacts associated with ash fall, reduce the effects, and increase the human capacity to cope with such events. A few items such as a flashlight, plastic sheeting to protect electronic equipment from ash ingress, and battery operated radios, are extremely useful during ash fall events. [8] The protection of infrastructure must also be considered within emergency preparedness. Critical facilities that need to remain operable should be identified, and all others should be shut down to reduce damage. It is also important to keep ash out of buildings, machinery and lifeline networks (in particular water and wastewater systems. to prevent some of the damage caused by ash particles. Windows and doors should be closed and shuttered if possible, to prevent ingress of ash into buildings. Communication plans should be made beforehand to inform of mitigation actions being undertaken. Spare parts and back-up systems should be in place prior to ash fall events to reduce service disruption and return functionality as quickly as possible. Good preparedness also includes the identification of ash disposal sites, before ash fall occurs, to avoid further movement of ash and to aid clean-up. [66] Protective equipment such as eye protection and dust masks should be deployed for clean-up teams in advance of ash fall events. Some effective techniques for the management of ash have been developed including cleaning methods and cleaning apparatus, and actions to mitigate or limit damage. The latter include covering of openings such as: air and water intakes, aircraft engines and windows during ash fall events. Roads may be closed to allow clean-up of ash falls, or speed restrictions may be put in place, in order to prevent motorists from developing motor problems and becoming stranded following an ash fall. [67] To prevent further effects on underground water systems or waste water networks, drains and culverts should be unblocked and ash prevented from entering the system. [66] Ash can be moistened (but not saturated) by sprinkling with water, to prevent remobilisation of ash and to aid clean-up. [67] Prioritisation of clean-up operations for critical facilities and coordination of clean-up efforts also constitute good management practice. [66] 67] 68] It is recommended to evacuate livestock in areas where ashfall may reach 5 cm or more. [69] Volcanic ash soils [ edit] Volcanic ash's primary use is that of a soil enricher. Once the minerals in ash are washed into the soil by rain or other natural processes, it mixes with the soil to create an andisol layer. This layer is highly rich in nutrients and is very good for agricultural use; the presence of lush forests on volcanic islands is often as a result of trees growing and flourishing in the phosphorus and nitrogen -rich andisol. [70] Volcanic ash can also be used as a replacement for sand. 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Identifying, understanding and analyzing critical infrastructure interdependencies. IEEE Control Systems Magazine. 21 (6) 11–25. 1109/37. 969131. ^ Volcanic ash crisis cost airlines 2. 2 billion. The Daily Telegraph. 27 April 2010. ^ a b c Federal Emergency Management Agency (1984. The mitigation of ashfall damage to public facilities: lessons learned from the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens. ^ a b c Hayes, Josh L. Wilson, Thomas M. Magill, Christina (2015-10-01. Tephra fall clean-up in urban environments. 304: 359–377. Bibcode: 2015JVGR... 304... 359H. 2015. 09. 014. hdl: 10092/11705. ^ Hayes, Josh; Wilson, Thomas M. Deligne, Natalia I. Cole, Jim; Hughes, Matthew (2017-01-06. A model to assess tephra clean-up requirements in urban environments. Journal of Applied Volcanology. 6 (1. 1186/s13617-016-0052-3. ISSN   2191-5040. ^ Araya Valenzuela 2015, p. 80. ^ Williams, Matt (2016-03-19. What Are The Benefits Of Volcanoes. Universe Today. Retrieved 2018-12-17. ^ Solanki, Seetal (2018-12-17. 5 radical material innovations that will shape tomorrow. CNN Style. Retrieved 2018-12-17. Bibliography Araya Valenzuela, Oscar (2015. Erupciones volcánicas: Efectos sobre la ganadería. Collección Austral Universitaria de Ciencias Silvoagropecuarias (in Spanish. Ediciones UACh. ISBN   978-956-9412-20-2. External links [ edit.

Untrained Sth Korean army bomb disposal unit infiltrates Nth Korea to steal some Nukes so they can blow up a volcano before it erupts destroying the entire Korean Peninsula. br> They only had 1 copy of the map which they promptly lose (face palm) forcing them to rely on guidance from wise cracking but treacherous N Korean agent who just wants to find his daughter (BH Lee who at least earned 1 star, everyone else gets zero.
This movie was trash right from the start with ridiculously exaggerated disaster effects, ludicrously incompetent Sth Korean military, miraculous survival of the main characters and a blatant 'self-sacrifice redemption of the bad guy' movie trope.

Top definitions explore dictionary or ashfall noun Geology. a rain of airborne ash resulting from a volcanic eruption. the deposit produced by such an event. Words nearby ash fall ash, ash blond, ash can, ash can school, ash color, ash fall, ash flow, ash gray, ash wednesday, ash-blond, ash-shaytān Unabridged Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, Random House, Inc. 2020.

Ash Fall—A "Hard Rain" of Abrasive Particles, USGS Volcano Fact Sheet U. S. Geological Survey Fact Sheet 027-00 Online Version 1. 0 Volcanic Ash Fall–A "Hard Rain" of Abrasive Particles Volcanic ash consists of tiny jagged particles of rock and natural glass blasted into the air by a volcano. Ash can threaten the health of people and livestock, pose a hazard to flying jet aircraft, damage electronics and machinery, and interrupt power generation and telecommunications. Wind can carry ash thousands of miles, affecting far greater areas and many more people than other volcano hazards. Even after a series of ash-producing eruptions has ended, wind and human activity can stir up fallen ash for months or years, presenting a long-term health and economic hazard. On the morning of May 18, 1980, many people in eastern Washington noticed dark, threatening clouds approaching from the west. Most thought the clouds were part of one of the enormous thunderstorms common in late spring. However, what they did not know was that at 8:32 a. m. Mount St. Helens had erupted explosively, blasting an enormous column of volcanic ash and gas more than 60, 000 feet into the air. This surreal-looking photo shows an enormous cloud of volcanic ash approaching the small town of Ephrata, Washington, on the morning of May 18, 1980. The ominous cloud was from Mount St. Helens, 145 miles to the west. The volcano had begun to erupt explosively less than 3 hours earlier, catching many communities downwind unprepared for the destructive rain of gritty ash that followed. (Copyrighted photo courtesy of Douglas Miller. ) As the clouds drifted overhead, a rain of ash began to fall, plunging much of the region into darkness that lasted all day. Homes, farms, and roads were quickly covered by as much as 4 inches of gritty ash. The smallest ash particles penetrated machinery and all but the most tightly sealed structures. By the end of the day, more than 500 million tons of ash had fallen onto parts of Washington, Idaho, and Montana. The ash prevented travel throughout much of eastern Washington because of poor visibility, slippery roads, and ash-damaged vehicles, stranding more than 10, 000 people and isolating many small communities. More than 1 billion in property and economic losses was caused by Mount St. Helens' 1980 eruption—much of it by ash. Future large explosive eruptions in the United States are certain to produce widespread ash falls and are likely to cause even greater losses. Since 1980, rapid population and economic growth in the Western United States, widespread use of computers and electronics, and the dramatic increase in jet-airline traffic, especially over the North Pacific, have made more people and property in the Nation vulnerable to the effects of volcanic ash. Knowing the characteristics of volcanic ash and being prepared when a volcano shows signs of restlessness can significantly reduce the potential economic and health impacts of airborne and falling ash. What is Volcanic Ash? Small jagged pieces of rocks, minerals, and volcanic glass the size of sand and silt (less than 1/12 inch or 2 millimeters in diameter) erupted by a volcano are called volcanic ash. Very small ash particles can be less than 1/25, 000th of an inch (0. 001 millimeter) across. Though called "ash. volcanic ash is not the product of combustion, like the soft fluffy material created by burning wood, leaves, or paper. Volcanic ash is hard, does not dissolve in water, is extremely abrasive and mildly corrosive, and conducts electricity when wet. Volcanic ash is formed during explosive volcanic eruptions. Explosive eruptions occur when gases dissolved in molten rock (magma) expand and escape violently into the air, and also when water is heated by magma and abruptly flashes into steam. The force of the escaping gas violently shatters solid rocks. Expanding gas also shreds magma and blasts it into the air, where it solidifies into fragments of volcanic rock and glass. Once in the air, hot ash and gas rise quickly to form a towering eruption column, often more than 30, 000 feet high. Larger rock fragments more than 2 inches across ejected by the explosion typically fall within a few miles of the eruption site. However, wind can quickly blow fine ash away from the volcano to form an eruption cloud. As the cloud drifts downwind from the erupting volcano, the ash that falls from the cloud typically becomes smaller in size and forms a thinner layer. Ash clouds can travel thousands of miles, and some even circle the Earth. VOLCANIC ASH FALL FROM ANCIENT AND MODERN ERUPTIONS IN THE WESTERN UNITED STATES Ash from Mount St. Helens—Yakima, Wash., May 1980. Spurr Volcano—Anchorage, Alaska, August 1992. Copyright Anchorage Daily News. Mount St. Helens—Ephrata, Washington, May 1980. Copyright Douglas Miller. Ash fall from the two largest eruptions in the United States in the 20th century (yellow) is Ash from Mount St. Helens' Ephrata, Wash., May 1980 ( c) dwarfed by ash fall from ancient eruptions. More than 1 billion in losses was caused by Mount St. Helens'1980 eruption—much of by ash. Ash falls from future eruptions are certain to be widespread and hazardous. To reduce health risks, people should avoid breathing ash, wear dust masks and goggles, not use contact lenses, and stay indoors when possible. Some Effects of Volcanic Ash When volcanic ash accumulates on buildings, its weight can cause roofs to collapse, killing and injuring people. A dry layer of ash 4 inches thick weighs 120 to 200 pounds per square yard, and wet ash can weigh twice as much. The load of ash that different roofs can withstand before collapsing varies greatly—flat roofs are more likely to collapse than steeply pitched ones. Because wet ash conducts electricity, it can cause short circuits and failure of electronic components, especially high-voltage circuits and transformers. Power outages are common in ash-fall areas, making backup power systems important for critical facilities, such as hospitals. Eruption clouds and ash fall commonly interrupt or prevent telephone and radio communications in several ways, including physical damage to equipment, frequent lightning (electrical discharges) and either scattering or absorption of radio signals by the heated and electrically charged ash particles. can cause internal-combustion engines to stall by clogging air filters and also damage the moving parts of vehicles and machinery, including bearings and gears. Engines of jet aircraft have suddenly failed after flying through clouds of even thinly dispersed ash. Roads, highways, and airport runways can be made treacherous or impassable because ash is slippery and may reduce visibility to near zero. Cars driving faster than 5 miles per hour on ash-covered roads stir up thick clouds of ash, reducing visibility and causing accidents. Ash also clogs filters used in air-ventilation systems to the point that airflow often stops completely, causing equipment to overheat. Such filters may even collapse from the added weight of ash, allowing ash to invade buildings and damage computers and other equipment cooled by circulating outside air. Agriculture can also be affected by volcanic ash fall. Crop damage can range from negligible to severe, depending on the thickness of ash, type and maturity of plants, and timing of subsequent rainfall. For farm animals, especially grazing livestock, ash fall can lead to health effects, including dehydration, starvation, and poisoning. Like airborne particles from duststorms, forest fires, and air pollution, volcanic ash poses a health risk, especially to children, the elderly, and people with cardiac or respiratory conditions, such as asthma, chronic bronchitis, and emphysema. The best time for communities, businesses, and homeowners to make preparations for a rain of volcanic ash is before an eruption occurs. When an explosive eruption does occur, warning of advancing ash clouds may precede actual ash fall by only minutes or hours. By developing community emergency-response plans that can be activated when a volcano is threatening to erupt, the harmful and disruptive effects of ash can be greatly reduced. So that the public can be warned of impending eruptions and advancing ash clouds, the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) and cooperating organizations operate instrument networks that monitor more than 40 active volcanoes in the United States. Christopher A. Kenedi, Steven R. Brantley, James W. Hendley II, and Peter H. Stauffer Graphics by Susan Mayfield and Sara Boore Banner design by Bobbie Myers For more information or copies of the paper version of this fact sheet contact: U. Geological Survey David A. Johnston Cascades Volcano Observatory 5400 MacArthur Blvd. Vancouver, WA 98661 Telephone (360) 993-8900 Fax (360) 993-8980 Visit the Cascades Volcano Observatory on the web or Alaska Volcano Observatory 4200 University Drive, Anchorage, AK 99508 Tel: 907) 786-7497, Fax: 907) 786-7425 Alaska Volcano Observatory on the web COOPERATING ORGANIZATIONS Federal Aviation Administration National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Weather Service Related Fact Sheets What Are Volcano Hazards? USGS Fact Sheet 002-97) Ash—A Danger to Aircraft in the North Pacific (USGS Fact Sheet 030-97) See a list of other volcano-related fact sheets published by the U. Geological Survey PDF version of this fact sheet (1. 2 MB) Download Adobe Acrobat Reader for free GEOLOGICAL SURVEY–REDUCING THE RISK FROM VOLCANO HAZARDS Learn more about volcanoes and the hazards they pose at the USGS Volcano Hazards Program website URL of this page: Maintained by: Michael Diggles Created 3/15/00 Last modified: 10/13/04 (mfd) Privacy Statement, Disclaimer, Accessibility, Department of the Interior, U. Geological Survey, Geologic Division.

Ashfall. Ashfall movie download free. Ash fall from volcano. I can't wait to see this movie. I bet Terry is going to kick ass. Ashfall watch online free. Below my expectations. Suppose the disastrous erruption was kept far way behind the scnene. The core is strongly focus on the "rescue" mission in which i think the emphasis was bluntly executed. The pulling in of the westerner and the Chinese into the play just not adequately boost up the hype to gain excitement. I noticed most of the facial expression in the movie is very "plastic" except for my idol BHLee. Ashfall full movie free. Recent Examples on the Web The traffic [is at] a turtles pace because of the ashfall. — Washington Post, Taal volcano eruption forces thousands to seek safer ground in the Philippines. 13 Jan. 2020 The airport partially reopened Monday after the ashfall eased. Joeal Calupitan, Anchorage Daily News, Lava gushes from volcano near Manila as thousands of Filipinos flee. 13 Jan. 2020 Aviation warnings kicked in to keep planes clear of the ash, which can destroy engines, and the ashfall is not expected to be significant on the mainland. Scott K. Johnson, Ars Technica, New Zealand volcano erupts, killing tourists on the island. 9 Dec. 2019 Standby status means the public should avoid the area nearest the volcano and have masks available in the event of ashfall. Fox News, Volcano erupts on same Indonesian island as earlier quake. 3 Oct. 2018 Related stories from Sacramento Bee County Fire in Yolo doubles to 8, 000 acres in 2 hours; 30 structures threatened Reports of overnight ashfall in counties, including Napa and Sonomoa, surfaced Sunday morning on Twitter. Michael Mcgough, sacbee, County Fire in Yolo continues furious growth, now 16, 500 acres with evacuations ordered. 1 July 2018 In addition to dangers from the bubbling, scalding-hot lava from the Kilauea volcano, residents on the Big Island of Hawaii are enduring threats from both vog and volcanic ashfall. Doyle Rice, USA TODAY, There's a code red for Hawaii volcano because falling ash, vog could harm humans, aircraft. 16 May 2018 Users took to social media Sunday to post photos of early-morning ashfall. Michael Mcgough, sacbee, Bay Area residents wake up to ashfall from the County Fire, about 75 miles away. 1 July 2018 The National Weather Service issued an ashfall advisory in effect until 8 a. m. Friday. James Rogers, Fox News, Hawaii volcano's 'explosive' eruption sends ash plume soaring, prompts warning. 17 May 2018 These example sentences are selected automatically from various online news sources to reflect current usage of the word 'ashfall. Views expressed in the examples do not represent the opinion of Merriam-Webster or its editors. Send us feedback.

Ashfall audiobook free. Worth watching. The plotline, special effect are perfect. This movie is box office in SK, Taiwan, china, hongkong. Another good movie from SK beside Parasite. Enter the characters you see below Sorry, we just need to make sure you're not a robot. For best results, please make sure your browser is accepting cookies. Type the characters you see in this image: Try different image Conditions of Use Privacy Policy 1996-2014, Inc. or its affiliates.

Ingat po kay sa usok, dahil delikado sa lungs, noon pong pumutok iyan ay 1911, 1967 high School ako at marami pong tao ang nasalanta, taga Batangas din po ako, at malapit dyan, umulan ng putik kaya namatay lahta ang mga kalamansiaan. Makikita na po ngayon antin ang sagot nang kalikasa ay huwag sirain, lalo na sa babayin ng Tagaytay at Talisay, huwag ng pahintulan ang mga intsik na ginagawang palaisdaan tagiliraan, ibalik ulit ang natural na kalikasan.

Ashfall from wildfires.


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FF40: The world has stoped spinning and Dominic Toretto needs to come out of retirement one last time and bring his family back together to race around the equator at unimaginable speeds to get it spinning again, but the forces of Hell aren't making this job easy, with the help of Briborg a Brian cyborg from the future and a sentient 1970 Dodge Charger R/T they'll get the world spinning and close the Hellsmouth once and for all.

Triple X is back in a trippy mission with healing powers. Woah 😍😍😍. Average rating 3. 97 22, 755 ratings 2, 871 reviews, Start your review of Ashfall (Ashfall, 1) all those people who are afraid that the legalization of gay marriage will lead to people wanting to marry their pets have every reason to be afraid. as soon as it becomes legal to marry a book, i am going to marry this one. and i assume at some point i will cheat on this book and divorce it and marry another book, but for a little while, we will have a storybook relationship and a joint checking account. and it will be wonderful. so - okay - for those of you who have not had the opportunity to... My mates over at Tanglewood Press have asked me not to review this book until a month prior to its release. So. Instead, I give you: Elle's Top Ten List of Things Learnt From Reading Ashfall 1. Mike Mullin is a genius 2. Bald chicks are hot 3. Bunnies are delicious 4. Toilet water is also delicious 5. I should really get around to planting that corn field. 6. Mike Mullin is who I will befriend during the next apocalypse 7. Darla: a name no longer reserved for 1930's boobalicious southern damsels 8... Alex starts off this book as a somewhat spoiled teenage boy. He refuses to go with his family on a trip to his uncle's farm. He wants to stay at home and play World of Warcraft and just flipping sulk. He doesn't have much sulking time though because something hits his house and crushes in the roof and sets the house on fire. That can get a teenager off his ass. Well, sometimes. We learn that the super volcano at Yellowstone has exploded. Don't go and Google that shit like I did. It will scare the... June 27, 2012 SUPERVOLCANO. I strongly recommend a visit to karen's fabulous review, which (along with her encouragement) got me interested in this gripping and realistic tale. AND! A SPECIAL GUEST APPEARANCE BY karen IS FEATURED IN THIS JOINT REVIEW! YAY! So here is what we are talking about. We will start with some science. Pic #1: Ashfall zones from known eruptions of the Yellowstone Supervolcano: Age. millions of years ago for the specific eruption. How likely is an eruption during our... For the first time ever, I felt ashamed of my species. The volcano had taken our homes, our food, our automobiles, and our airplanes, but it hadnt taken our humanity. No, wed given that up on our own. Being a teenager in a world covered with ashes is not easy at all. Alex discovered that after the eruption of a volcano in Yellowstone National Park. His parents and his little sister had left town just before the earth started to shake and Alex was left all alone in a burning house with no one... The first night after I started reading this book, I dreamt about being stuck in a house and hiding from some people while trying to survive/escape. All night. THAT, is a sign of a good book! This story is told in Alex's point of view. A huge volcano has erupted and they're now seeing and living the after effects. Which means a LOT of ash falling, incredible climate changes, and desperate food situations. I love that the book started right before the eruption. We got to live through it with Alex... 4. 5 stars Well, colour me surprised: I kind of love this book. Let me clarify that statement. I didnt expect to dislike it. I wouldnt have gone to the effort of procuring it (Ashfall is not available in Australia) if I didnt have a desire to read it. But my physical TBR pile is literally (view spoiler) big enough to do me an injury (albeit a minor one) if it fell on me, and somehow Ashfall repeatedly ended up on the bottom of that... Actual rating: 3. 5 stars I was really, really excited to read Ashfall. I've been devouring dystopian novels left and right recently. I'm always itching for my next fix. Seriously, I think I have a problem at this rate, I might just have to check myself into some sort of program. Ashfall is a bit different from the current slew of dystopian novels. For one thing, it is written from a male PoV. These seem to be in slow supply these days, sadly. Ashfall tells the story of 15 year-old Alex traveling... Great reread! COME ON MIKE, GIMME BLADES OF SPRING. SUCH a fantastic book. Well written, well researched, detailed but fast-paced, frightening and exciting. There were several times reading this where I was literally terrified of what was happening or what would happen next for Alex. I wasn't expecting much from Darla (I'm not a fan of the name, dunno why) but I warmed up to her quickly and they play off each other so well. The entire trip from Iowa to Illinois was never boring, and Mr... *This ARC was provided to me by the publishers. No money or gifts were exchanged for this review. I seem to be one of the very few that found this book a little on the average side. It really probably wasnt the books fault. In fact, if youre looking for some good reviews of this book, try out Phoebe Norths Review. There are several different reasons why people enjoy apocalypse stories. Some people enjoy watching the break down of society and making commentary on that. Some people enjoy the... So imagine the super-volcano at Yellowstone National Park erupted and caused the grid to fall, no more electricity, no more travel by car or plane, food is scarce, ash fall causes roofs to fall in and buildings to cave, people start looting and acting like maniacal animals. that is the premise of this book. It's not exactly dystopian, but more worst-case disaster scenario. I thought the book started really strong, but fizzled in the middle, then picked up in the last 30% or so. However, it... I remember a high school history teacher telling us that if there were ever a nuclear attack he recommended getting in a car and driving as fast as possible towards New York City, most likely it would be a target and you'd have a better chance of getting instantly killed the closer you were to 'ground zero' this was when ground zero meant the spot where nuclear warheads would strike, and at a time when we feared IBM's flying over Canada as a doomsday scenario, one that you figure gives you time... When I looked at this title I kept thinking of that childhood chant. ashes we all fall down. Well what you know that may not be so far from the truth. Alex is your normal teenage guy living in the suburbs in Iowa. He fights with his mom, and on his free time plays games and practices taekwondo. From what you can tell he doesn't particularly seem like a special teenager. He's kind of bratty and has a good life. Well Alex's parents and sister decide to visit family, and he fights to... ”Everything would be better tomorrow, I thought: a new day, a new dawn. It would have to be better than this. I was wrong. There was no new dawn the next day. ” Cedar Falls, Iowa. Almost 16-years-old Alex has just experienced a major break-through on his way to adulthood: His parents stopped arguing with him and have taken off to uncle Paul's goat farm in Illinois with only his sister Rebecca in tow. Alex luxuriates in his freedom of choice between doing his homework and collecting gold-nuggets... * 4 ~Can they catch a break~ Stars* Wow. I normally stay away from YA books but this one was was written so well, that at times I forgot that these were just kids trying to stay alive. Yes, there were times that I felt the book slowed down and others where I found it so unbelievable that these kids couldn't catch a break, but it worked in the long run. Definitely a different twist to the post apocalyptic world and believable consequences that could happen at any time. I absolutely LOVED... Sometimes it takes a major natural disaster to make you realize how important family is! Just ask Alex. He is as happy as can be that he was left alone for a weekend. He didnt want to go across the country to visit relatives. So, now he is by himself and loving life, right? Not. See, when you are teen trying to act like an adult, sometimes you need to make adult decisions. Sometimes, those decisions are huge like fleeing for your life because a supervolcano has erupted. Sometimes those decisions... Christmas present from Jen (Nevada Jen) 4. 5 Stars* For the first time ever, I felt ashamed of my species. The volcano had taken our homes, our food, our automobiles, and our airplanes, but it hadn't taken our humanity. No, we'd given that up on our own. Oh my gosh, book was SO good. I think I'm only shocked because, well, I kept putting it off and putting it off and then my wonderful Jen bought this for me for Christmas. Turns out. I am a total MORON for not reading this before... “For the first time ever, I felt ashamed of my species. ” Define Humanity: humanity, noun, plural -ties. 1. all human beings collectively; the human race; humankind. 2. the quality or condition of being human; human nature. 3. the quality of being humane; kindness; benevolence. Define survival: survival, noun 1. the act or fact of surviving... End of the world story? I am THERE regardless if the book is about zombies, nuclear fall out, or mass pandemic. But, if the end of the world story happens to be about a natural disaster – say like a massive volcano eruption – then I am in heaven. For me, this book is the best of everything in one of my favorite genres. It is a young adult book with a male main character, set in a location I know intimately well because I grew up there, and involving a super volcano eruption and its aftermath... I'm not entirely sure why I put myself through reading books like this when they cause a sense of panic to flow right through my body and out the end. Honestly I would be completely inadequate; I don't know any survival skills; I couldn't butcher a pencil let alone an animal. Please excuse me while I run off to take a survival course, learn to run a farm and befriend anyone that would get advance warning of an incoming apocalypse so I can ransack the supermarket/ bookshops/ pharmacies/ diy... Ashfall was kindly provided to me by Netgalley for Tanglewood. Expected Publication Date: October 11th 2011 Ashfall was one of the most well written books Ive read in a long time. I was so enthralled with this book that I read it a little bit at a time because I wanted to relish this book and all that it was about. Ashfall is the story of Alex, a teenage boy learning to survive on his own after the Yellowstone supervolcano erupts. With the electricity out, the sun hidden behind a cloud of ash... Opening Line: “I was home alone on that Friday evening. Those who survived know exactly which Friday I mean. ” Well this was super good. I picked up Ashfall and literally didnt stop reading for about 80 pages. I mean I didnt even move from where I was standing. The opening chapters are just unputtdownable, with each ending on a note like; “then the explosions started” or “I took off running” and “When she pried the flap of flesh open with her pocketknife, I screamed and passed out” so that you... Wow. I may need to sign up for some Taekwondo classes. That was awesome. There was a time when I used to watch all those Discovery Channel science shows. Shark Week, Storm Chasers, I watched them all. My all-time favorites were the volcano shows. Then I learned about the Yellowstone Super Volcano. The sheer size of this volcano boggles the mind and should it decide to blow, life on earth (especially North America) would undergo some drastic changes. Ashfall begins on an ordinary Friday afternoon... Hmmm. On one hand I enjoyed it and it kept my attention and loved the characters. It had a very realistic feel to it. Loved Alex and Darla, their relationship developed naturally over the course of the story, never felt rushed or anything. The world around them, it was scary and the tension was high. it was well done and I could see it playing out inside my head. I admired Alex and Darla for being so resourceful and not giving up (even though I wanted to smack Alex one time but I may have... I decided to give this 3. 5 stars, but rounded up to 4. “For the first time ever, I felt ashamed of my species. ” (I just realised this quote is the same one that Maja chose. but it's a good quote: D) Initial Final Page Thoughts. And then….? What a random place to finish. High Point. SUPERVOLCANO. 10/10 for originality, Mr Mullin. Alex. Ash fights... One of my many book addictions is the “End of the World As We Know It” stories or otherwise known as “Oh-My-Good-Golly-What–Do-We-Do-Now? ” books. Over the years, these tales have begun to possess similar plots, events, scares, and attitudes. But Mike Mullins Ashfall felt like a brand new bag in many ways! It held such inspiration, morality, and hope in the pages. This story felt more like a journey towards a new way of living in a new world rather than the beginning of the end. After a... Rating: 4. 5 Stars Remember back when dystopian was a new genre and it was supposed to be full of scary, post-apocalyptic stories? Remember how that quickly changed from dystopian to dystopian-romance, a genre dedicated to the love stories of two unlikely people in a society that is most likely (a) keeping the people ignorant (b) controlling the people or (c) infested with zombies/vampires? Well, Mike Mullin takes us back to the original dystopian – the kind thats scary, believable, and almost a... Here are the three C's of how I would react if a supervolcano exploded near my hometown: 1) C heck Twitter, Facebook, and Goodreads for moral support 2) C ry when the internet either A) offers no moral support or B) dies 3) C reate a fortress out of books in my bedroom, proceed to lie down and read/weep until my inevitable death Ashfall felt like a mix of Life As We Knew It by Susan Beth Pfeffer and The Road by Cormac McCarthy. In the first chapter a giant piece of rock destroys fifteen-year-old Alex's... * 4. 5 stars* I'm not much for survivalist kind of books but I loved this one. It scared the hell out me though - I'm really not ready for a situation like this. Thankfully, it's not bound to happen in my lifetime. This is the story of Alex, a typical teenager who has to grow up fast when he finds himself alone in the midst of the biggest natural disaster of his lifetime. He's separated from his family (by his own choice) and now that he doesn't have them, he finds that he misses them terribly... Halfway through reading this, I felt the need to inform my husband how woefully unprepared we are for the coming apocalypse. We don't own a shotgun. I don't know how to slaughter my own meat, or cook over an open fire. And I am completely ill equipped to deal with the inevitable downfall of society. Once I accepted my inadequacy and accepted that I would most likely be one of the first casualties, I could sit back and enjoy the story of Alex's battle for survival on his journey to find his parents...

What's it like during ashfall? The main thing to expect after an ashfall is a time-consuming, costly, and "dirty" effort by everyone in the affected area to remove and dispose of the ash and to keep ash from entering homes, businesses, and wastewater systems. People need to coordinate their clean-up activities so that ash is only moved once and does contaminate a previously cleaned site. Because water will be in high demand, a rationing strategy may be necessary so that a community's fire-fighting ability is not reduced. Following are photographic examples of ashfall based on accumulated ashfall thickness. Thresholds for each term are based on severity of various impacts, drawing heavily on the experience and documentation for recent eruptions of Mt. Ruapehu in New Zealand (Johnston, 1997. Table of ashfall severities based on accumulated thickness. Term Accumulation (inches) Accumulation (decimal inches & SI unit) Key Impact Thresholds (cumulative) Trace or dusting <1/32 in 0. 031 in. 0. 8 mm) Eye and respiratory irritant, very low level impacts for most people. Minor 1/32 – 1/4 in 0. 031 – 0. 25 in (0. 8 – 6. 4 mm) Possible crop, animal equipment, and infrastructure problems; widespread clean-up likely. Moderate 1/4 – 1 in 0. 25 – 1. 0 in (6. 4 –25. 4 mm) Ash removal efforts significant. Heavy 1 – 4 in 1. 0 – 4. 0 in (25. 4 –100 mm) Weaker roofs can fail at ~ 4-5 inches of compacted, wet ash accumulation ( 40 lb/ft2) Very Heavy 4 in – 12 in 4. 0 – 12. 0 in (100 – 300 mm) Danger of roof collapse increases, damage to trees, essential services interrupted. Severe > 12 in >12 in (>300 mm) Roads impassable, severe infrastructure damage, heavy plant and animal loss. Trace or Dusting (<0. 8 mm or 1/32 in) Minor (0. 8–6. 4 mm or 1/32–1/4 in) Minor ashfall may result in some of these conditions, but the main challenge will likely be the persistent ashy conditions (due to remobilization by wind and other disturbance. Impact is mostly limited to the effort needed to clean and remove the ash. Moderate (6. 4–25 mm or 1/4–1 in) Heavy (2. 5–10 cm or 1–4 in) During a heavy ashfall and for several days after, normal community and business services are typically severely limited or completely unavailable. Transportation systems are likely to be shut down or restricted—roads may be impassable or purposefully blocked, airports temporarily closed. People will be stranded away from home. Electrical power may be intermittently unavailable when conditions favor arcing on transformer insulators or if power generators have to be shut down for clean-up operations. After a heavy ashfall, surviving roofs may collapse if the ash becomes saturated before it is removed or they may have suffered structural damage. Severe (>30 cm or 12 in.

Ashfall finding good quotes. Sana masirana ang mundo. When a volcano erupts, it will eject a wide variety of material into the air above it (called pyroclastic fall. The large fragments of material, 0. 1 to 10 metres in diameter, rarely land more than 1-2 km from the vent. However the fine material (millimetre-sized ash) which is derived from volcanic glass, rock and crystal particles, can be carried by currents in the eruption column to high above the volcano and pass into the downwind plume to rain out forming ash fall deposits. Ash fall Impact Zones The impacts of ash fall on people, structures and equipment depends largely on ash thickness. Ash particles commonly have sharp broken edges, which makes them a very abrasive material. In order to simplify hazard assessment and to allow the definition of risk within certain areas, five impact zones can be used. These are areas receiving less than 1mm of ash, those receiving 1-5mm, 5-100mm, 100-300mm and over 300mm. The thicknesses given are for uncompacted ash. Impacts of Ash Fall Less than 1 mm ash thickness Will act as an irritant to lungs and eyes. Airports will close due to the potential damage to aircraft. Possible minor damage to vehicles, houses and equipment caused by fine abrasive ash. Possible contamination of water supplies, particularly roof-fed tank supplies. Dust (or mud) affects road visibility and traction for an extended period. 1-5 mm ash thickness Effects that occur with < 1 mm of ash will be amplified, plus: Possible crop damage. Some livestock may be affected. Most will not be unduly stressed but may suffer from lack of feed, wear on teeth, and possible contamination of water supplies. Minor damage to houses will occur if fine ash enters buildings, soiling interiors, blocking air-conditioning filters, etc. Electricity may be cut; ash shorting occurs at substations if the ash is wet and therefore conductive. Low voltage systems more vulnerable than high. Water supplies may be cut or limited due to failure of electricity to pumps. Contamination of water supplies by chemical leachates may occur. High water-usage will result from ash clean-up operations Roads may need to be cleared to reduce the dust nuisance and prevent storm-water systems from becoming blocked. Sewage systems may be blocked by ash, or disrupted by loss of electrical supplies. Damage to electrical equipment and machinery may occur. 5-100 mm ash thickness Effects that occur with < 5 mm of ash will be amplified, plus: Burial of pasture and low plants. Foliage may be stripped off some trees but most trees will survive. Most pastures will be killed by over 50 mm of ash. Major ash removal operations in urban areas. Most buildings will support the ash load but weaker roof structures may collapse at 100 mm ash thickness, particularly if the ash is wet. Road transport may be halted due to the build up of ash on roads. Cars still working may soon stop due to clogging of air-filters. Rail transport may be forced to stop due to signal failure bought on by short circuiting if ash becomes wet. 100-300 mm ash thickness Effects that occur with < 100 mm of ash will be amplified, plus: Buildings that are not cleared of ash will run the risk of roof collapse, especially large flat roofed structures and if ash becomes wet. Severe damage to trees, stripping of foliage and breaking of branches. Loss of electrical reticulation due to falling tree branches and shorting of power lines. > 300 mm ash thickness Effects that occur with < 300 mm will be amplified, plus: Heavy kill of vegetation. Complete burial of soil horizon. Livestock and other animals killed or heavily distressed. Kill of aquatic life in lakes and rivers. Major collapse of roofs due to ash loading. Loading and possible breakage of power and telephone lines. Roads unusable until cleared. Effects that occur with < 300 mm will be amplified, plus: Roads unusable until cleared.

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